Volume 4, Issue 1 (1-2019)                   hrjbaq 2019, 4(1): 47-54 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Golkhandan A. Effect of Military Expenditure on Health Status in Developing Countries . hrjbaq. 2019; 4 (1) :47-54
URL: http://hrjbaq.ir/article-1-306-en.html
Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administrative, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran , (golkhandana@gmail.com)
Abstract:   (603 Views)

Introduction: In developing countries, military expenditures which usually used to provide security, affect on economic conditions by analyzing economic power. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to examine the effect of military expenditures on health expenditures in developing countries.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed using statistical data from 25 countries during the 1995-2014. The long-term relationship between per capita health expenditures, per capita military expenditures, per capita income, life expectancy, population and per capita foreign aid has been investigated using panel co-integration and generalized method of moments (GMM). Also, the statistical analyzes were performed using the Eviews and Stata soft wares.
Results: Based on the results of the model estimation, per capita military expenditures, population and per capita foreign aid decrease the per capita health expenditures in the long–term. Also, in the long–term, per capita income and life expectancy increase the per capita health expenditures. In the long-term, one percent increase in the per capita military expenditures, reduce the per capita health expenditures in developing countries by about 0.18 percent.
Conclusion: Providing the appropriate policies for provides security without widespread military expenditure in developing countries can improve the health in these countries by transferring economic resources from the military sector toward the health sections.
Keywords: Health, Military Expenditures, Developing Countries, Generalized Method of Moment.

Full-Text [PDF 542 kb]   (145 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2019/01/10 | Revised: 2019/03/9 | Accepted: 2019/02/8 | ePublished ahead of print: 2019/02/9 | Published: 2019/03/2

References
1. Institute) SSIPR. Yearbooks Armaments and Disarmaments and International Security. New York: SIPRI-Oxford University Press; 2010.
2. Agency) UAUAcaD. World military expenditure and arms transfer. Washington DC US Government Printing Office; 1994.
3. 170-171. UNDPU.
4. Beyzaei E. The relationship between military spending and economic variables in Iran (1972-1997). Journal of Humanities of Al-Zahra University 2001;4(37,38):47-75.
5. Poorsadegh N, Kashmari A, Eftekharshahi J. Impacts of military expenses on the economic development in Iran: given the impacts of the imposed Iran-Iraq war and September 11 event. J Military Manage. 2007;8(28):78-100.
6. Sivard RL. World military and social expenditure Washington DC World Priorities; 1993.
7. Dizgi M, Panahi H, Taghizadeh H. Impact of military spending on external debt in the developing countries. J Economy Model. 2009;3(7):117-36.
8. Fan H, Liu W, Coyte PC. Do military expenditures crowd-out health expenditures? Evidence from around the world, 2000–2013. Defence and Peace Economy. 2018;29(7):766-79.
9. Lin ES, Ali HE, Lu Y-L. Does military spending crowd out social welfare expenditures? Evidence from a panel of OECD countries. Defence and Peace EconomY. 2015;26(1):33-48.
10. Hirnissa M, Habibullah MS, Baharom A. The relationship between defense, education and health expenditures in selected Asian countries. Interl J Economy & Finance. 2009;1(2):149-55.
11. Zhang Y, Liu X, Xu J, Wang R. Does military spending promote social welfare? A comparative analysis of the BRICS and G7 countries. Defence and peace economy. 2017;28(6):686-702.
12. Baltagi B. Econometric analysis of panel data: John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2005.
13. Anderson TW, Hsiao C. Estimation of dynamic models with error components. J the American statistic Associat. 1981;76(375):598-606.
14. Arellano M, Bond S. Some tests of specification for panel data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations. The review of economy study. 1991;58(2):277-97.
15. Arellano M, Bover O. Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. J econometrics. 1995;68(1):29-51.
16. Blundell R, Bond S. Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. J econometrics. 1998;87(1):115-43.
17. Green WH. Econometric analysis. 7th ed. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River: Pearson International 2012.
18. Im KS, Pesaran MH, Shin Y. Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. J econometrics. 2003;115(1):53-74.
19. Kao C. Spurious regression and residual-based tests for cointegration in panel data. J econometrics. 1999;90(1):1-44.
20. Bilgel F, Tran KC. The determinants of Canadian provincial health expenditures: evidence from a dynamic panel. Applied Economics. 2013;45(2):201-12.
21. Golkhandan A. Testing the hypothesis of health induced demand in Iran using the Bayesian Model Averaging. Hrjbaq 2018;3(4):245-53.
22. Rezaei H, Alizadeh M, Nademi Y. Examining the spatial spillover effects of misery index on health care expenditure in selected developing countries. J healthcare management 2017;8(1):57-67.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Health Research Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb