Volume 6, Issue 4 (9-2021)                   hrjbaq 2021, 6(4): 319-330 | Back to browse issues page


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Abdollahi S, Azarbayjani M A, Peeri M, Rahmati-Ahmadabad S. Comparison of the Effect of Phoenix Dactylifera Extract and Testosterone Enanthate with and without Resistance Training on the Expression of FOXO3α and Ctnnβ1 Genes and Apoptosis in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle. hrjbaq. 2021; 6 (4) :319-330
URL: http://hrjbaq.ir/article-1-512-en.html
Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. , (m_azarbayjani@iauctb.ac.ir)
Abstract:   (1232 Views)

Introduction: Using testosterone by athletes (especially in resistance training) to improve recovery and muscle growth has become common. But considering the side effects, it seems necessary to find alternative methods.
Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into six groups (n=5): exercise training, phoenix dactylifera extract, testosterone, phoenix dactylifera extract + exercise training, and testosterone+ exercise training. The exercise training groups performed a resistance training program (five sessions per week, each session, starting with 50% of a maximum repetition and increasing the intensity of training to disability) for four weeks. Phoenix dactylifera extract (5 days a week at a dose of 100 mg per kg body weight) was fed to rats in the phoenix dactylifera groups for four weeks. Rats in the testosterone groups also received testosterone enanthate for four weeks (five days a week at a dose of two milligrams per kilogram of body weight). Forty-eight hours after the last intervention, the animals were sacrificed and the gastrocnemius muscle were removed to measurements of the FOXO3α and beta-catenin 1 (Ctnnβ1) gene expressions, as well as, the ratio of apoptotic cells.
Results: Exercise decreased FOXO3α gene expression and the number of apoptotic cells in the gastrocnemius muscle (P=0.001). The combination of testosterone and phoenix dactylifera decreased the expression of FOXO3α (P=0.001) and Ctnnβ1 (P=0.004) genes as well as the number of apoptotic cells (P=0.001) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The rate of gastrocnemius muscle apoptotic cells in the interactive groups (exercise + testosterone and exercise + phoenix dactylifera) was lower than the independent groups (exercise, testosterone and phoenix dactylifera) (P=0.001).
Conclusion: The present study suggests the positive effect of phoenix dactylifera on the expression of FOXO3α and Ctnnβ1 genes, as well as, the amount of apoptotic cells in the gastrocnemius muscle. So, phoenix dactylifera may be considered as a natural alternative to testosterone.

Author Contribution: MAA was supervisor of the study, SRA and MP were advisor of the study, and SA was done the study and collected data.
Conflict of Interest: None
Funding/Supports: Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University.
Ethical Considerations: all ethical concerns were considered. Also, tis study was confirmed by ethic committee of Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran (code number: IR.IAU.M.REC.1399.022).
Applicable Remarks: The present data suggesting phoenix dactylifera as a natural alternative to testosterone for endurance athletes.

Full-Text [PDF 2197 kb]   (185 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/06/5 | Revised: 2022/05/31 | Accepted: 2021/09/11 | ePublished ahead of print: 2021/09/14 | Published: 2021/12/13

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